The novel coronavirus has swept through the D.C. area, spurring massive changes in the way we live our lives — from whether we go to work to how our children are educated.
Below is a timeline of some of the key developments over the past few months.
WTOP will continue to update this timeline as things change.
Reports first emerge of a mysterious pneumonia-like illness linked to an outdoor food market in the Chinese city of Wuhan.
Doctors and scientists studying the illness determine the viral pneumonia is caused by a new type of coronavirus, according to reports in Chinese state media.
At that time, 59 people had contracted the illness, local authorities said. Later that month, the entire province is locked down. The lockdown would last 76 days.
The U.S. confirms the first known cases of the new coronavirus in the country: five cases in Washington state, all among people who traveled to the Chinese city at the center of the outbreak.
Maryland and Virginia saw the first people in the D.C. area tested for the new coronavirus. Those tested included a Maryland resident and a George Mason University student. However, the results came back negative.
For the new few weeks, health departments in D.C., Maryland and Virginia reported a trickle of new test results — all negative.
The World Health Organization declares the outbreak a global emergency after the number of cases worldwide spikes more than tenfold in a week.
The U.S. declared a public health emergency.
President Donald Trump signed an order that temporarily bars from the U.S. foreign nationals, other than immediate family of U.S. citizens and permanent residents, who have traveled in China within the last 14 days.
The WHO gave the disease caused by the novel coronavirus a name: COVID-19.
The U.S. recorded its first coronavirus death: a man in his 50s at a long-term care facility in Washington state.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan announced three people in Maryland, all in Montgomery County, had tested positive for the virus — the first three known cases in the D.C. region. The first cases in the state included a married couple in their 70s and a woman in her 50s who had returned from a cruise along the Nile River.
Hogan announced a state of emergency.
Two days later, D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser announced the first known coronavirus case in the District. The Rev. Timothy Cole, the rector of Georgetown Christ Church, had recently traveled to Kentucky for a church conference. Several other parishioners would later test positive amid a burgeoning outbreak.
That same day, Virginia also recorded its first case: a U.S. Marine stationed at Fort Belvoir.
D.C.’s Mayor Bowser declared a public health emergency and urged all large gatherings planned in the District to be postponed or canceled. At the time, there were 10 confirmed coronavirus cases in D.C. — and more than two dozen in the broader D.C. region.
Health officials said there was evidence that community transmission of the coronavirus was occurring.
It was also on this date the WHO first characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic.
In a dramatic announcement, Maryland Gov. Hogan issued an order banning all large gatherings of people and activated the National Guard, while the state superintendent of education ordered all public schools in the state to close for two weeks.
Hogan’s announcement came after officials announced the first known case of a patient being infected with coronavirus through what’s known as community transmission.
That same day, Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam also declared a state of emergency.
Following Maryland’s move closing schools for two weeks, D.C. and Virginia announced schools would be closed through the end of March.
D.C.’s Bowser also issued a new order banning gatherings of 250 people or more in response to the spread of the virus. The mayor’s previous measure had been only a recommendation. The threshold would later be lowered to 10 people, in line with CDC guidance.
That same day, speaking from the White House, Trump declared a national emergency.
The region marked a sad milestone: the first coronavirus death in D.C., Maryland or Virginia.
Health officials said they weren’t sure how the James City County, Virginia, man in his 70s had contracted the virus, and they suspected the virus was spreading in the community.
D.C.’s Bowser ordered all bars and restaurants in the District to operate as carryout and delivery only. In addition to restaurants, the D.C. Health Department said movie theaters, health clubs, spas, massage parlors and other large businesses also need to close.
Maryland’s Hogan issued a similar order.
The number of coronavirus cases around the region continued to climb, reaching more than 100.
At a White House briefing that day, Trump and members of his Coronavirus Task Force called on Americans to practice social distancing and to avoid gatherings for the next 14 days.
Maryland’s Hogan announced he was pushing back the state’s presidential primary, initially scheduled for April 28, until June 2. Under plans later put together by the state board of elections, the rescheduled primary will mostly be done by mail, but there will be one polling place open in each county.
Following the moves by Maryland and D.C. to close restaurant dining rooms and movie theaters, Virginia’s Northam issued an order enforcing a 10-person limit in restaurants and other businesses. He would later order entertainment venues closed entirely.
Maryland marked its first coronavirus death: A Prince George’s County man his 60s with an underlying medical condition.
At the time there were about 200 coronavirus cases in D.C., Maryland and Virginia.
In a further clampdown on public gatherings, Maryland’s Hogan ordered all shopping malls and entertainment venues in the state to close. He also issued an order lowering the threshold on gatherings to 10 people or less, and promised it would be enforced by law enforcement.
Elsewhere, Italy overtook China as the country with the most coronavirus-related deaths at the time — more than 3,400 — and the governor of California issued a statewide order for people to stay home.
D.C.’s Bowser extended the closure of public schools through April 27. As it stands now, Bowser has yet to make a decision on when — or if — students will return to classrooms this school year.
In addition, Bowser extended her order banning dine-in services at restaurants and requiring them to operate on a takeout or delivery-only capacity through most of April.
That same day, D.C. also recorded its first death from COVID-19: a 59-year-old man.
In New York, which was soon to become the U.S. epicenter of the pandemic, the governor issued a “shelter-in-place” order, directing residents to stay home.
In another whirlwind of official pronouncements, Maryland’s Hogan ordered nonessential businesses in the state to close, and Virginia’s Northam ordered all public schools to keep their doors closed through the end of the academic year.
In D.C., Bowser ordered the National Guard and D.C. police to block roads near the National Mall and the Tidal Basin in an attempt to limit large crowds visiting the cherry blossoms.
Earlier that month, organizers of the National Cherry Blossom Festival, usually one of the District’s marquee spring events, canceled most of the festivities.
At the time, there were more than 650 coronavirus cases in region.
Following Maryland’s earlier move, D.C.’s Bowser ordered nonessential businesses, such as salons, barbershops and clothing stores, in the city to close.
The Metro transit system, which had already announced service reductions, announced it was closing more than a dozen rail stations indefinitely. Ridership had fallen by 90% as many workers around the region worked from home.
By that point, the region recorded more than 800 coronavirus cases and 13 deaths.
In Maryland, public schools, which were set to reopen at the beginning of April, were instead ordered closed through April 27, by order of state Superintendent of Education Karen Salmon. It’s still to be decided if students will actually return to classrooms this school year.
Meanwhile, the number of COVID-19 cases across Maryland, D.C. and Virginia continued to rise, totaling more than 1,000 cases.
Congress passed and Trump quickly signed an unprecedented $2.2 trillion economic rescue package into law.
The measure contains a plan to send stimulus checks to millions of Americans. However, D.C. leaders criticized the measure after it categorized the District as a territory and slated it to receive $700 billion less in direct aid than states.
D.C.’s Bowser called it an “injustice” and said she is continuing to work with congressional leaders to secure more money for the city.
Nationwide, the number of coronavirus infections surged past 100,000 and the number of deaths topped 1,500.
In the most significant step taken to fight the spread of the virus, the leaders of Maryland, D.C. and Virginia issued formal “stay-at-home orders.”
All three orders were similar, directing residents to stay in their homes except for trips to the grocery store, to get medical care, going to work and outside recreation as long as social distancing guidelines were followed.
In all three jurisdictions, restaurants were allowed to stay open, offering takeout and delivery service.
The total number of coronavirus cases in D.C., Maryland, and Virginia hit more than 2,900, with 39 deaths.
Officials in D.C. unveiled a model of projected coronavirus infections that estimated up to 93,000 total infections in the District and deaths at anywhere from 225 to 1,000.
In Virginia, Northam said the state was “facing a recession” in the wake of the coronavirus response efforts, and he told state agencies to prepare for budget cuts.
The White House Coronavirus Task Force unveiled a new recommendation from the CDC: Americans should cover their faces with a cloth mask or other face covering when leaving the house, especially in places such as grocery stores where practicing social distancing is difficult.
Overall, coronavirus cases in D.C., Maryland and Virginia topped 5,500. The number of deaths reached more than 100.
In a first of its kind virtual session, the D.C. Council unanimously approved a major coronavirus relief bill.
Among other provisions, the legislation includes a citywide freeze on rent increases, mortgage-payment deferrals, an expansion of unemployment insurance and the mailing of an absentee-ballot application to every voter.
The legislative action came as an economic analysis by the city estimated $607 million in lost revenue from shuttered businesses and out-of-work residents. Bowser ordered District government agencies to freeze hiring and salaries.
D.C.’s Bowser issued a new order requiring grocery stores to limit the number of customers inside stores and requiring customers to cover their faces.
The total cumulative number of cases of COVID-19 in D.C., Maryland and Virginia grew to over 10,000, and 226 people had died.
Maryland’s Hogan announced he was ordering a statewide budget and hiring freeze, and warned of cuts after “worst-case scenario” projections showed a $2.8 billion revenue shortfall.
Earlier that day, Maryland’s top financial official had called the coronavirus pandemic “the worst public health crisis and most devastating economic catastrophe of our lifetimes.”
Trump, who had drawn alarm when he earlier said he hoped to “reopen” the country by Easter, announced a task force that would come up with a plan for “opening our country.”
By this time, 330 people had died in D.C., Maryland and Virginia, and the total number of coronavirus infections reached more than 13,000.
A growing number of counties in the D.C. area announced new rules requiring grocery store customers to wear face coverings while shopping.
Montgomery, Prince George’s, Anne Arundel and Charles counties in Maryland all announced new rules requiring face masks in stores and other public places.
By this point, more than 16,600 people in D.C., Virginia and Maryland had been infected with the virus, and more than 460 had died.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan issued an executive order requiring customers to wear face masks or face coverings inside grocery stores and other retailers throughout the state and on any form of public transportation.
In D.C., Mayor Muriel Bowser extended a series of social distancing measures, including a stay-at-home order, the closure of nonessential businesses and public schools, and a ban on large public gatherings through May 15. Those measures were originally set to expire April 24.
And in Virginia, Gov. Ralph Northam extended an executive order closing recreation and entertainment businesses and banning large gatherings until May 8. The state’s stay-at-home order still runs through June 10.
The news came as the region marked its deadliest two days of the pandemic, so far. Maryland, alone, recorded 40 deaths each of the past two days. All told, the coronavirus had claimed more than 616 lives in D.C., Maryland and Virginia. The number of total infections stood at more than 18,700.
The White House unveiled a broad road map for economic recovery in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, laying out a three-phase process for restoring economic activity and beginning to lift some restrictions.
In order to move to phase one of the plan, the guidelines recommend at least 14 days of declining coronavirus cases.
In D.C., Mayor Muriel Bowser announced that students would not return to classrooms this year and that the school year would end three weeks early.
Meanwhile, in Maryland, education officials took a more incremental approach. State Superintendent of Education Karen Salmon announced that schools would stay closed until May 15.
Caravans of protesters under the banner “Reopen Maryland” gathered near the statehouse in Annapolis to protest the closing of business, churches and schools.
Similar groups of protesters would also gather in Richmond, Virginia, April 22, when the General Assembly met for an unprecedented outdoor session.
National polls have shown most Americans support state-imposed restrictions on businesses and public gatherings to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus
The state of Maryland acquired 500,000 new COVID-19 tests from a South Korean health care company after weeks of complicated negotiations that were spearheaded by Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan and first lady Yumi Hogan.
Hogan called the $9 million purchase “game-changing” and said it would significantly ramp up the state’s testing capacity.
By that point, the number of known coronavirus cases across D.C., Maryland and Virginia stood at more than 25,000. The death toll from the virus stood at 921.
D.C., Maryland, and Virginia region marked a grim milestone with number of coronavirus deaths reaching more than 1,000.
Congress passed another coronavirus relief bill, this one providing nearly $500 billion in relief to employers and hospitals.
Congress delivered a nearly $500 billion infusion of coronavirus spending, rushing new relief to employers and hospitals buckling under the strain of a pandemic that claimed almost 50,000 American lives and one in six U.S. jobs.
The measure passed almost unanimously and President Donald Trump signed it into law the following day.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan unveiled a three-stage plan for gradually easing coronavirus restrictions in the state, including the stay-at-home order he issued in late March.
The governor said he was hopeful the state could begin easing some of the restrictions listed in the first stage by early May, but it would depend on whether hospitalizations and deaths continued to decline.
D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser announced the creation of the “Reopen DC Committee” to come up with a plan for restarting parts of the District’s economy. The committee is being led by Susan Rice, former national security adviser under President Barack Obama, and Michael Chertoff, former Secretary of Homeland Security under President George W. Bush.
By this point, there were nearly 37,000 coronavirus cases in D.C., Maryland and Virginia, and 1,500 deaths.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan issued an executive order requiring that all residents and staff members at nursing homes around the state be tested for the coronavirus, regardless of whether they show symptoms.
The ramp-up in testing was made possible by the acquisition of 500,000 test kits from South Korea, Hogan said.
The number of deaths across D.C., Maryland and Virginia had doubled, to more than 2,000. At that point, there were 45,000 total cases in the region.
Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam said the commonwealth would be ready to begin reopening some businesses, such as barbershops and restaurants, May 15 as part of the first phase of the state’s coronavirus recovery plan.
Under the first phase of the reopening plan, gyms, restaurants and retail shops could reopen but with lower capacities.
At the time, there were more than 51,000 total cases and more than 2,200 deaths across D.C., Maryland and Virginia.
Education officials in Maryland announced schools in the state would remain closed for the rest of the school year. Also, Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan announced that the state appeared to be on track to begin Phase One of the state’s reopening plan as early as May 15.
By this point, there were more than 54,000 cases and nearly 2,500 deaths across D.C., Maryland and Virginia.
Beginning on the morning of May 7, some outdoor recreational outdoor activities were allowed to restart after Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan eased some restrictions.
Among the activities now allowed: golf, tennis, camping, fishing and boating. In addition, state park facilities and beaches reopened.
D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser and other District officials opened the Washington Convention Center as an alternate care site. It took the Army Corps of Engineers about three weeks to transform the convention center into a 437-bed field hospital. Starting May 11, it was able to accommodate 100 patients. But Bowser said the facility was more like the District’s “insurance policy” in case hospitals faced an influx of coronavirus patients.
“We hope that we will never have to use it, but it is here and staffed for when we do or if we do,” she said.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan lifted the state’s stay-at-home order, and officially moved the state into Phase One of its coronavirus recovery plan.
Under the first phase, retail businesses in the state could reopen at 50% capacity, as well as barbershops and hair salons. However, restaurants, movie theaters and gyms remained closed.
The governor allowed local jurisdictions to delay their moves into Phase One, and Montgomery and Prince George’s counties — the two largest in Maryland — did so.
Meanwhile, Virginia also entered Phase One of its recovery plan on May 15.
Under the first phase of the recovery plan, retailers could welcome more customers into their stores — from a 10-person limit up to 50% capacity. Restaurants could reopen outdoor seating to patrons at 50% capacity. Attendance at places of worship could expand from a 10-person limit to 50% of normal capacity.
However, Gov. Ralph Northam also allowed Northern Virginia to move more slowly in lifting restrictions because it had faced higher case counts than other parts of the state.
D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser lifted the District’s stay-at-home order as the city entered Phase One of its coronavirus recovery plan. Under the plan, restaurants were allowed to reopen for outdoor dining, and nonessential retailers were allowed to reopen for curbside pickup.
Maryland allowed a host of nonessential businesses to reopen, including retails shops, bank branches and houses of worship. It was part of the state’s Phase Two plan unveiled by Gov. Larry Hogan.
However, as with the lifting of Phase One restrictions, Hogan allowed local leaders to lift their own restrictions more slowly than the state guidelines. Leaders in both Prince George’s and Montgomery counties announced their counties would remain in Phase One.
In Prince George’s County, officials announced the county was moving to what they called a “modified” Phase Two plan. Under the plan, retailers, hair salons and restaurants could all reopen indoor service with capacity limits.
The county’s transition to a full Phase Two plan didn’t come until June 25.
Montgomery County officially entered its Phase Two recovery plan. In Phase Two, restaurants could restart indoor dining limited to 50% capacity and resume limited indoor services at houses of worship, among other changes.
D.C. moved into Phase Two of its coronavirus recovery plan. Under Phase Two, a host of activities resumed, including indoor dining at 50% capacity, indoor shopping at nonessential businesses, and the reopening of parks and gyms with safety restrictions.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan announced a “safe and phased” reopening plan for assisted living facilities in the state, which required universal screenings and face coverings for staff and visitors, mandated widespread testing and allowed for limited visitation.
Virginia moved into Phase Three of its coronavirus recovery plan, which lifted capacity caps on nonessential retail and restaurants, and allowed entertainment venues to reopen at 50% capacity.
After being closed for months, the Smithsonian Institution announced the National Zoo and the National Air and Space Museum’s Udvar-Hazy Center, in Chantilly, Virginia, would reopen to visitors.
Earlier, part of the National Gallery of Art reopened to visitors with timed passes.
Montgomery County Public Schools, the largest school district in Maryland, announced that public schools in the county would start the school year with virtual learning only through at least January. An earlier version of a back-to-school plan would have returned some students to classrooms.
In Fairfax County, the largest school district in Virginia, the school board also voted to approve a 100% virtual start to the school year.
Earlier, U.S. Education Secretary Bety DeVos criticized Fairfax County’s earlier plan for a hybrid in-person and virtual model, saying “schools must fully open, and they must be fully operational.”
D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser issued stricter rules for mask-wearing in the District, essentially requiring people to wear masks anytime they’re in public.
D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser issued an order requiring people coming to the District from “high-risk” areas after nonessential travel to self-quarantine for 14 days.
The order applied to visitors from 27 U.S. states where the seven-day moving average of daily new COVID-19 cases was 10 or more per 100,000 people.
The measure came amid a rise in coronavirus cases across large parts of the U.S., including in the South, the Midwest and the West.
Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam issued an executive order cutting back on gatherings and indoor dining and drinking in the Hampton Roads area — including Virginia Beach — after a surge in COVID-19 cases there.
Meanwhile, the U.S. marked another grim milestone in the pandemic, with 150,000 lives lost to the virus.
Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan announced stricter mask rules in the state.
Under the new order, which went into effect July 30 at 5 p.m., face masks are required inside public buildings and at outdoor events if it is not possible to maintain a safe physical distance of 6 feet between individuals.
Previously, face coverings were only required inside retailers and on public transportation.
Meanwhile, officials with D.C. Public Schools announced public schools in the District would have an all-virtual start to the coming school year.
An extra $600 a month unemployment boost and other measures for workers impacted by the coronavirus pandemic that had been negotiated by Congress as part of the CARES Act in March expired.
There was no immediate replacement, and congressional leaders and the White House remained far apart from a deal on further COVID-19 relief measures.
The Association Press contributed to this report.