Today in History: Aug. 21

**FILE**This undated file image shows an etching of astronomer Galileo Galilei. Galileo is going from heretic to hero. The Vatican is rehabilitating its most famous victim of the Inquisition, just in time for the 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope and the U.N.-designated International Year of Astronomy next year.  (AP Photo, File)
In 1609, Galileo Galilei demonstrated his new telescope to a group of officials atop the Campanile in Venice. This undated file image shows an etching of astronomer Galileo Galilei. Galileo is going from heretic to hero. The Vatican is rehabilitating its most famous victim of the Inquisition, just in time for the 400th anniversary of Galileo’s telescope and the U.N.-designated International Year of Astronomy next year. (AP)
Graffiti covers the base of the Confederate Memorial on the grounds of the Capitol, Wednesday  Nov. 14, 2007, in Montgomery, Ala. The letters and numbers "N.T. 11 11 31" are believed to be a reference to slave Nat Turner, who was hanged on November 11, 1831 for starting a rebellion. (AP Photo/Rob Carr)
In 1831, Nat Turner launched a violent slave rebellion in Virginia resulting in the deaths of at least 55 whites. (Turner was later executed.) In this photo, graffiti covers the base of the Confederate Memorial on the grounds of the Capitol, Wednesday Nov. 14, 2007, in Montgomery, Ala. The letters and numbers “N.T. 11 11 31” are believed to be a reference to slave Nat Turner, who was hanged on November 11, 1831 for starting a rebellion. (AP/Rob Carr)
Members of the media are gathered next to the Mona Lisa, during an event to unveil the new lighting of Leonardo da Vinci's painting Mona Lisa, also known as La Joconde, at the Louvre museum in Paris, Tuesday June 4, 2013. Mona Lisa is now illuminated by LED lighting. The lighting had to meet various technical specifications, but also meet the more subjective and aesthetic requirements of the museum Director and France’s Historical Monuments Committee.(AP Photo/Remy de la Mauviniere)
In 1911, Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa” was stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. (The painting was recovered two years later in Italy.) In this photo, members of the media are gathered next to the Mona Lisa, during an event to unveil the new lighting of Leonardo da Vinci’s painting Mona Lisa, also known as La Joconde, at the Louvre museum in Paris, Tuesday June 4, 2013. Mona Lisa is now illuminated by LED lighting. The lighting had to meet various technical specifications, but also meet the more subjective and aesthetic requirements of the museum Director and France’s Historical Monuments Committee. (AP/Remy de la Mauviniere)
1921 photo of  Soviet influential politician Leon Trotsky. (AP Photo)
In 1940, exiled Communist revolutionary Leon Trotsky died in a Mexican hospital from wounds inflicted by an assassin the day before. This is a 1921 photo of Soviet influential politician Leon Trotsky. (AP)
Actress Angela Lansbury, center, poses with actor-author Harvey Fierstein, left, and composer-Lyricist Jerry Herman, Sunday, August 21, 1983 in New York at the Broadway opening party for the play “La Cage Aux Folles." Fierstein wrote the book “La Cage Aux Folles”, and Herman authored the music and Lyrics for the Broadway musical “Mame’. (AP Photo/Rene Perez)
In 1983, the musical play “La Cage Aux Folles” opened on Broadway. Here, actress Angela Lansbury, center, poses with actor-author Harvey Fierstein, left, and composer-Lyricist Jerry Herman, Sunday, August 21, 1983 in New York at the Broadway opening party for the play “La Cage Aux Folles.” Fierstein wrote the book “La Cage Aux Folles”, and Herman authored the music and Lyrics for the Broadway musical “Mame.” (ASSOCIATED PRESS/Rene Perez)
Mikhail Gorbachev, the final leader of the Soviet Union, signs the decree relinquishing control of nuclear weapons to Boris Yeltsin at the Kremlin in Moscow, Wednesday, Dec. 25, 1991. Gorbachev, whose reforms gave Soviet citizens freedom, ended the Cold War and ultimately led to the destruction of his nation. He resigned on Wednesday as president of an empire that no longer exists. (AP Photo/Liu Heung Shing)
In 1991, the hard-line coup against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian Federation President Boris N. Yeltsin. Mikhail Gorbachev, the final leader of the Soviet Union, signs the decree relinquishing control of nuclear weapons to Boris Yeltsin at the Kremlin in Moscow, Wednesday, Dec. 25, 1991. Gorbachev, whose reforms gave Soviet citizens freedom, ended the Cold War and ultimately led to the destruction of his nation. He resigned on Wednesday as president of an empire that no longer exists. (AP/Liu Heung Shing)
FILE - In this Dec. 12, 2018, file photo, Michael Cohen, President Donald Trump's former lawyer, leaves federal court after his sentencing in New York. Federal prosecutors have told a judge in New York Wednesday, July 17, 2019, that they have concluded their investigation into campaign finance violations committed by Cohen. U.S. District Judge William H. Pauley III said that the conclusion of the case clears the way for the public release of sealed search warrant materials dealing with the investigation. (AP Photo/Craig Ruttle, File)
In 2018, Michael Cohen, President Donald Trump’s former personal lawyer and fixer, pleaded guilty to campaign-finance violations and other charges; Cohen said Trump directed him to arrange the payment of hush money to porn star Stormy Daniels and a former Playboy model to fend off damage to his White House bid. Former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was found guilty of eight financial crimes in the first trial victory of the special counsel investigation into Trump’s associates.   FILE – In this Dec. 12, 2018, file photo, Michael Cohen, President Donald Trump’s former lawyer, leaves federal court after his sentencing in New York. Federal prosecutors have told a judge in New York Wednesday, July 17, 2019, that they have concluded their investigation into campaign finance violations committed by Cohen. U.S. District Judge William H. Pauley III said that the conclusion of the case clears the way for the public release of sealed search warrant materials dealing with the investigation. (AP/Craig Ruttle)
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**FILE**This undated file image shows an etching of astronomer Galileo Galilei. Galileo is going from heretic to hero. The Vatican is rehabilitating its most famous victim of the Inquisition, just in time for the 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope and the U.N.-designated International Year of Astronomy next year.  (AP Photo, File)
Graffiti covers the base of the Confederate Memorial on the grounds of the Capitol, Wednesday  Nov. 14, 2007, in Montgomery, Ala. The letters and numbers "N.T. 11 11 31" are believed to be a reference to slave Nat Turner, who was hanged on November 11, 1831 for starting a rebellion. (AP Photo/Rob Carr)
Members of the media are gathered next to the Mona Lisa, during an event to unveil the new lighting of Leonardo da Vinci's painting Mona Lisa, also known as La Joconde, at the Louvre museum in Paris, Tuesday June 4, 2013. Mona Lisa is now illuminated by LED lighting. The lighting had to meet various technical specifications, but also meet the more subjective and aesthetic requirements of the museum Director and France’s Historical Monuments Committee.(AP Photo/Remy de la Mauviniere)
1921 photo of  Soviet influential politician Leon Trotsky. (AP Photo)
Actress Angela Lansbury, center, poses with actor-author Harvey Fierstein, left, and composer-Lyricist Jerry Herman, Sunday, August 21, 1983 in New York at the Broadway opening party for the play “La Cage Aux Folles." Fierstein wrote the book “La Cage Aux Folles”, and Herman authored the music and Lyrics for the Broadway musical “Mame’. (AP Photo/Rene Perez)
Mikhail Gorbachev, the final leader of the Soviet Union, signs the decree relinquishing control of nuclear weapons to Boris Yeltsin at the Kremlin in Moscow, Wednesday, Dec. 25, 1991. Gorbachev, whose reforms gave Soviet citizens freedom, ended the Cold War and ultimately led to the destruction of his nation. He resigned on Wednesday as president of an empire that no longer exists. (AP Photo/Liu Heung Shing)
FILE - In this Dec. 12, 2018, file photo, Michael Cohen, President Donald Trump's former lawyer, leaves federal court after his sentencing in New York. Federal prosecutors have told a judge in New York Wednesday, July 17, 2019, that they have concluded their investigation into campaign finance violations committed by Cohen. U.S. District Judge William H. Pauley III said that the conclusion of the case clears the way for the public release of sealed search warrant materials dealing with the investigation. (AP Photo/Craig Ruttle, File)

Today is Wednesday, Aug. 21, the 233rd day of 2019.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On August 21, 2000, rescue efforts to reach the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Kursk ended with divers announcing none of the 118 sailors had survived.

On this date:

In 1609, Galileo Galilei demonstrated his new telescope to a group of officials atop the Campanile in Venice.

In 1831, Nat Turner launched a violent slave rebellion in Virginia resulting in the deaths of at least 55 whites. (Turner was later executed.)

In 1863, pro-Confederate raiders attacked Lawrence, Kansas, massacring the men and destroying the town’s buildings.

In 1911, Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa” was stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. (The painting was recovered two years later in Italy.)

In 1912, the Boy Scouts of America named its first Eagle Scout, Arthur Rose Eldred of Troop 1 in Rockville Centre, N.Y.

In 1940, exiled Communist revolutionary Leon Trotsky died in a Mexican hospital from wounds inflicted by an assassin the day before.

In 1963, martial law was declared in South Vietnam as police and army troops began a violent crackdown on Buddhist anti-government protesters.

In 1983, Philippine opposition leader Benigno S. Aquino Jr., ending a self-imposed exile in the United States, was shot dead moments after stepping off a plane at Manila International Airport. The musical play “La Cage Aux Folles” opened on Broadway.

In 1991, the hard-line coup against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian Federation President Boris N. Yeltsin.

In 1992, an 11-day siege began at the cabin of white separatist Randy Weaver in Ruby Ridge, Idaho, as government agents tried to arrest Weaver for failing to appear in court on charges of selling two illegal sawed-off shotguns; on the first day of the siege, Weaver’s teenage son, Samuel, and Deputy U.S. Marshal William Degan were killed.

In 1993, in a serious setback for NASA, engineers lost contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft as it was about to reach the red planet on a $980 million mission.

In 1995, ABC News settled a $10 billion libel suit by apologizing to Philip Morris for reporting the tobacco giant had manipulated the amount of nicotine in its cigarettes.

Ten years ago: A wildfire broke out north of Athens, Greece; in the days that followed, the blaze spread, charring 80 square miles before being extinguished. A high-level delegation of North Korean officials paid their respects to late former South Korean President Kim Dae-jung. Leaders of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America voted to lift a ban that prohibited sexually active gays and lesbians from serving as ministers.

Five years ago: Calling it a “miraculous day,” an American doctor infected with Ebola left his isolation unit at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta; Dr. Kent Brantly warmly hugged his physicians and nurses, showing the world that he posed no public health threat one month after getting sick with the virus. Gov. Jay Nixon ordered the Missouri National Guard to begin withdrawing from Ferguson, where nightly scenes of unrest had erupted since a white police officer fatally shot an unarmed black 18-year-old nearly two weeks earlier.

One year ago: Michael Cohen, President Donald Trump’s former personal lawyer and fixer, pleaded guilty to campaign-finance violations and other charges; Cohen said Trump directed him to arrange the payment of hush money to porn star Stormy Daniels and a former Playboy model to fend off damage to his White House bid. Former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was found guilty of eight financial crimes in the first trial victory of the special counsel investigation into Trump’s associates. Republican Cong. Duncan Hunter of California and his wife were charged with using more than $250,000 in campaign funds for personal expenses such as family trips to Italy and Hawaii. The body of college student Mollie Tibbetts was found in an Iowa cornfield; authorities say they were led to the body by a farmworker from Mexico who was suspected of being in the country illegally and that he confessed to kidnapping and killing her while she was out running.

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© 2019 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.

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