Today in History: July 18

FILE -- In this Jan. 31, 2006 file photo former South African President Nelson Mandela smiles during his meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa. Some relatives of Mandela say a new book by a military doctor that documents Mandela's treatment before his 2013 death violates doctor-patient confidentiality. However, the now-retired doctor, Vejay Ramlakan, said in an interview broadcast over the weekend on the eNCA news channel that the Mandela family had requested that the book be written. (AP Photo/Themba Hadebe, File)
In 1918, South African anti-apartheid leader and president Nelson Mandela was born in the village of Mvezo. In this Jan. 31, 2006 file photo former South African President Nelson Mandela smiles during his meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa. Some relatives of Mandela say a new book by a military doctor that documents Mandela’s treatment before his 2013 death violates doctor-patient confidentiality. However, the now-retired doctor, Vejay Ramlakan, said in an interview broadcast over the weekend on the eNCA news channel that the Mandela family had requested that the book be written. (AP Photo/Themba Hadebe, File) (AP/Themba Hadebe)
FILE – In this June 23, 1936, file photo, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, running for re-election, waves during the Democratic National Convention held at Convention Hall in Philadelphia. Philadelphia hosted the Democratic National Convention in 1936 and 1948 and the Republican National Convention in 1865, 1872, 1900, 1940, 1948 and 2000, and five of the eight candidates chosen were victorious in November. Philadelphia is hosting the Democratic National Convention from Monday through Thursday, July 25 to 28, 2016. (AP Photo, File)
On July 18, 1940, the Democratic National Convention at Chicago Stadium nominated President Franklin D. Roosevelt (who was monitoring the proceedings at the White House) for an unprecedented third term in office; earlier in the day, Eleanor Roosevelt spoke to the convention, becoming the first presidential spouse to address such a gathering. In this June 23, 1936, file photo, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, running for re-election, waves during the Democratic National Convention held at Convention Hall in Philadelphia. Philadelphia hosted the Democratic National Convention in 1936 and 1948 and the Republican National Convention in 1865, 1872, 1900, 1940, 1948 and 2000, and five of the eight candidates chosen were victorious in November. Philadelphia is hosting the Democratic National Convention from Monday through Thursday, July 25 to 28, 2016. (AP Photo, File) (AP)
An anti-Japan protester speaks as he holds a Japanese military flag with a cutout picture of Imperial Japanese Army Gen. Hideki Tojo, an executed Class-A war criminal, during a rally near the Japanese Consulate General in Hong Kong, Friday, Sept. 18, 2015, to protest against Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party that pushed contentious security bills through a legislative committee. The Chinese words on the flag read: " Shame ! " (AP Photo/Vincent Yu)
In 1944, Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister because of setbacks suffered by his country in World War II. In this photo, an anti-Japan protester speaks as he holds a Japanese military flag with a cutout picture of Imperial Japanese Army Gen. Hideki Tojo, an executed Class-A war criminal, during a rally near the Japanese Consulate General in Hong Kong, Friday, Sept. 18, 2015, to protest against Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party that pushed contentious security bills through a legislative committee. The Chinese words on the flag read: “Shame!” (AP Photo/Vincent Yu) (AP/Vincent Yu)
In 1969, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., left a party on Chappaquiddick Island near Martha’s Vineyard with Mary Jo Kopechne, 28; some time later, Kennedy’s car went off a bridge into the water. Kennedy was able to escape, but Kopechne drowned. In this July 25, 1969 file photo Sen. Edward Kennedy is escorted by troopers as he leaves court in Edgartown, Mass., after pleading guilty to a charge of leaving the scene of the accident which killed aide Mary Jo Kopechne. (AP)
This is a view looking down on the deck of the R.M.S. Titanic between the number 2 and number 3 stack where the deck suddenly hinges downward at right towards the tear, at which point the stern separated from the rest of the ship. This picture was taken by Angus, an unmanned camera sled which is towed across Titanic, July 18, 1986. (AP Photo/Woods Hole Oceangraphic Inst.)
In 1986, the world got its first look at the wreckage of the RMS Titanic resting on the ocean floor as videotape of the British luxury liner, which sank in 1912, was released by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This is a view looking down on the deck of the R.M.S. Titanic between the number 2 and number 3 stack where the deck suddenly hinges downward at right towards the tear, at which point the stern separated from the rest of the ship. This picture was taken by Angus, an unmanned camera sled which is towed across Titanic, July 18, 1986. (AP Photo/Woods Hole Oceangraphic Inst.) (AP)
Kigali residents walk past debris in the city center, Wednesday, August 3, 1994. The U. S. Embassy reopened for the first time since a genocidal rampage caused most foreigners to leave nearly four months ago. The death of Rwanda's president in a mysterious plane crash touched off ethnic slaughter and reignited a civil war that together claimed 350,000 to 500,000 lives. Most of the dead were minority Tutsis slain by Hutu soldiers and militiamen. The victorious Tutsi-dominated rebels installed a new government July 18. (AP Photo/Dominic Cunningham-Reid)
In 1994, Tutsi rebels declared an end to Rwanda’s 14-week-old civil war. Kigali residents walk past debris in the city center, Wednesday, August 3, 1994. The U. S. Embassy reopened for the first time since a genocidal rampage caused most foreigners to leave nearly four months earlier. The death of Rwanda’s president in a mysterious plane crash touched off ethnic slaughter and reignited a civil war that together claimed 350,000 to 500,000 lives. Most of the dead were minority Tutsis slain by Hutu soldiers and militiamen. (AP Photo/Dominic Cunningham-Reid) (AP/Dominic Cunningham-Reid)
In this July 18, 2013 file photo, the Detroit skyline rises behind the Monument to boxer Joe Louis, also known as "The Fist." The sculpture is an icon in Detroit's downtown, which is in the very early stages of recovery following finalization of the city's bankruptcy. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)
In 2013, once the very symbol of American industrial might, Detroit became the biggest U.S. city to file for bankruptcy, its finances ravaged and its neighborhoods hollowed out by a long, slow decline in population and auto manufacturing. In this July 18, 2013 file photo, the Detroit skyline rises behind the Monument to boxer Joe Louis, also known as “The Fist.” The sculpture is an icon in Detroit’s downtown, which is in the very early stages of recovery following finalization of the city’s bankruptcy. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya) (AP)
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FILE -- In this Jan. 31, 2006 file photo former South African President Nelson Mandela smiles during his meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa. Some relatives of Mandela say a new book by a military doctor that documents Mandela's treatment before his 2013 death violates doctor-patient confidentiality. However, the now-retired doctor, Vejay Ramlakan, said in an interview broadcast over the weekend on the eNCA news channel that the Mandela family had requested that the book be written. (AP Photo/Themba Hadebe, File)
FILE – In this June 23, 1936, file photo, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, running for re-election, waves during the Democratic National Convention held at Convention Hall in Philadelphia. Philadelphia hosted the Democratic National Convention in 1936 and 1948 and the Republican National Convention in 1865, 1872, 1900, 1940, 1948 and 2000, and five of the eight candidates chosen were victorious in November. Philadelphia is hosting the Democratic National Convention from Monday through Thursday, July 25 to 28, 2016. (AP Photo, File)
An anti-Japan protester speaks as he holds a Japanese military flag with a cutout picture of Imperial Japanese Army Gen. Hideki Tojo, an executed Class-A war criminal, during a rally near the Japanese Consulate General in Hong Kong, Friday, Sept. 18, 2015, to protest against Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party that pushed contentious security bills through a legislative committee. The Chinese words on the flag read: " Shame ! " (AP Photo/Vincent Yu)
This is a view looking down on the deck of the R.M.S. Titanic between the number 2 and number 3 stack where the deck suddenly hinges downward at right towards the tear, at which point the stern separated from the rest of the ship. This picture was taken by Angus, an unmanned camera sled which is towed across Titanic, July 18, 1986. (AP Photo/Woods Hole Oceangraphic Inst.)
Kigali residents walk past debris in the city center, Wednesday, August 3, 1994. The U. S. Embassy reopened for the first time since a genocidal rampage caused most foreigners to leave nearly four months ago. The death of Rwanda's president in a mysterious plane crash touched off ethnic slaughter and reignited a civil war that together claimed 350,000 to 500,000 lives. Most of the dead were minority Tutsis slain by Hutu soldiers and militiamen. The victorious Tutsi-dominated rebels installed a new government July 18. (AP Photo/Dominic Cunningham-Reid)
In this July 18, 2013 file photo, the Detroit skyline rises behind the Monument to boxer Joe Louis, also known as "The Fist." The sculpture is an icon in Detroit's downtown, which is in the very early stages of recovery following finalization of the city's bankruptcy. (AP Photo/Paul Sancya)

Today is Thursday, July 18, the 199th day of 2019. There are 166 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On July 18, 1969, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., left a party on Chappaquiddick (chap-uh-KWIH’-dihk) Island near Martha’s Vineyard with Mary Jo Kopechne (koh-PEHK’-nee), 28; some time later, Kennedy’s car went off a bridge into the water. Kennedy was able to escape, but Kopechne drowned.

On this date:

In A.D. 64, the Great Fire of Rome began, consuming most of the city for about a week. (Some blamed the fire on Emperor Nero, who in turn blamed Christians.)

In 1863, during the Civil War, Union troops spearheaded by the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, made up of black soldiers, charged Confederate-held Fort Wagner on Morris Island, S.C. The Confederates were able to repel the Northerners, who suffered heavy losses; the 54th’s commander, Col. Robert Gould Shaw, was among those who were killed.

In 1918, South African anti-apartheid leader and president Nelson Mandela was born in the village of Mvezo.

In 1940, the Democratic National Convention at Chicago Stadium nominated President Franklin D. Roosevelt (who was monitoring the proceedings at the White House) for an unprecedented third term in office; earlier in the day, Eleanor Roosevelt spoke to the convention, becoming the first presidential spouse to address such a gathering.

In 1944, Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister because of setbacks suffered by his country in World War II. American forces in France captured the Normandy town of St. Lo.

In 1947, President Harry S. Truman signed a Presidential Succession Act which placed the speaker of the House and the Senate president pro tempore next in the line of succession after the vice president.

In 1984, gunman James Huberty opened fire at a McDonald’s in San Ysidro (ee-SEE’-droh), California, killing 21 people before being shot dead by police. Walter F. Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in San Francisco.

In 1986, the world got its first look at the wreckage of the RMS Titanic resting on the ocean floor as videotape of the British luxury liner, which sank in 1912, was released by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

In 1989, actress Rebecca Schaeffer, 21, was shot to death at her Los Angeles home by obsessed fan Robert Bardo, who was later sentenced to life in prison.

In 1990, Dr. Karl Menninger, the dominant figure in American psychiatry for six decades, died in Topeka, Kansas, four days short of his 97th birthday.

In 1994, a bomb hidden in a van destroyed a Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing 85. Tutsi rebels declared an end to Rwanda’s 14-week-old civil war.

In 2013, once the very symbol of American industrial might, Detroit became the biggest U.S. city to file for bankruptcy, its finances ravaged and its neighborhoods hollowed out by a long, slow decline in population and auto manufacturing.

Ten years ago: The Taliban posted a video of an American soldier who’d gone missing June 30, 2009 from his base in eastern Afghanistan and was later confirmed to have been captured; in the recording, the soldier (later identified as Pfc. Bowe Bergdahl) said he was “scared I won’t be able to go home.” (Bergdahl was released in 2014; he was later given a dishonorable discharge and fined $1,000 on charges of desertion and misbehavior.)

Five years ago: The United Nations Security Council held an emergency meeting a day after the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 with the loss of all 298 people on board, demanding that pro-Russia rebels who controlled the eastern Ukraine crash site give immediate, unfettered access to independent investigators. The Obama administration announced it was reopening the Eastern Seaboard to offshore oil and gas exploration.

One year ago: The 12 Thai youth soccer teammates and their coach who were trapped in a flooded cave for more than two weeks were released from the hospital. FBI Director Christopher Wray said Russia was continuing to use fake news, propaganda and covert operations to sow discord in the United States. European regulators fined Google a record $5 billion for forcing cellphone makers that use the company’s Android operating system to install Google’s search and browser apps. California’s Supreme Court decided that a measure to divide the state into three parts would not appear on the November ballot. California’s Highway 1 near big Sur reopened, 14 months after it was blocked by a massive landslide.

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