Today in History: Feb. 1

Julia Ward Howe, composer and publisher of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic " in 1862, became a leader in the woman's  suffrage movementy in 1868. She also participated in moves to promote international peace. Julia Ward Howe is shown in this undated photo.  (AP Photo)
In 1862, “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” a poem by Julia Ward Howe, was published in the Atlantic Monthly. Julia Ward Howe, composer and publisher of “The Battle Hymn of the Republic ” in 1862, became a leader in the woman’s suffrage movementy in 1868. She also participated in moves to promote international peace. Julia Ward Howe is shown in this undated photo. (AP Photo) (AP)
Two color guards and color bearers of the Japanese-American 442nd Combat team stand at attention while their citations are read somewhere in France during World War II on Nov. 12, 1944 .  They  are standing on the ground where many of their comrades fell.  (AP Photo/U.S. Army Signal Corps)
In 1943, during World War II, one of America’s most highly decorated military units, the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, made up almost exclusively of Japanese-Americans, was authorized. Two color guards and color bearers of the Japanese-American 442nd Combat team stand at attention while their citations are read somewhere in France during World War II on Nov. 12, 1944 . They are standing on the ground where many of their comrades fell. (AP Photo/U.S. Army Signal Corps) (ASSOCIATED PRESS)
In this Jan. 7, 2010 photo, The entrance to the former F.W. Woolworth store that will become the International Civil Rights Center and Museum is shown in Greensboro, N.C. Four college freshmen walked into a Greensboro, N.C., dime store on Monday, Jan. 1 1960, bought a few items, then sat down at the "whites only" lunch counter, and sparked a wave of civil rights protest that changed America.  (AP Photo/Chuck Burton)
On Feb. 1, 1960, four black college students began a sit-in protest at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, where they’d been refused service. In this Jan. 7, 2010 photo, the entrance to the former F.W. Woolworth store that was set to become the International Civil Rights Center and Museum is shown in Greensboro, N.C. (AP Photo/Chuck Burton) (ASSOCIATED PRESS/Chuck Burton)
On this date in 1974, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor. (AP Photo/ file)
On this date in 1968, Richard M. Nixon announced his bid for the Republican presidential nomination. (AP Photo/ file) (AP)
The late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, center, is greeted by supporters after arriving at the airport in Tehran Iran in this Feb. 1, 1979 photo. Monday Feb. 1, 1999 is the 20th anniversary of Khomeini's return from exile to lead the Islamic revolution in his country.  ( AP Photo )
In 1979, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini received a tumultuous welcome in Tehran as he ended nearly 15 years of exile. Here, Khomeini, center, is greeted by supporters after arriving at the airport in Tehran, Iran in this Feb. 1, 1979 photo. ( AP Photo ) (ASSOCIATED PRESS)
FILE - In this Feb. 1, 1982 file photo, host David Letterman, right, and guest Bill Murray appear at the taping of the debut of "Late Night with David Letterman" in New York. Murray's 44th and final appearance Tuesday, May 19, 2015, will mark the end of late-night television's most unique and enduring host-guest relationships. After 33 years in late night and 22 years hosting CBS' "Late Show," Letterman will retire on May 20. (AP Photo/Nancy Kaye, File)
In 1982, “Late Night with David Letterman” premiered on NBC. FILE – In this Feb. 1, 1982 file photo, host David Letterman, right, and guest Bill Murray appear at the taping of the debut of “Late Night with David Letterman” in New York. (AP Photo/Nancy Kaye, File) (AP/NANCY KAYE)
In this Saturday, Feb. 1, 2003 file photo, debris from the space shuttle Columbia streaks across the sky over Tyler, Texas. A new NASA report says that the seat restraints, suits and helmets of the doomed crew of the space shuttle Columbia didn't work well, leading to "lethal trauma" as the out-of-control ship broke apart, killing all seven astronauts. In a graphic 400-page report, NASA further studied the Feb. 1, 2003, shuttle tragedy to help them design their new shuttle replacement capsule more likely to survive an accident. (AP Photo/Dr. Scott Lieberman, File)
In 2003, the space shuttle Columbia broke up during re-entry, killing all seven of its crew members. In this Saturday, Feb. 1, 2003 file photo, debris from the space shuttle Columbia streaks across the sky over Tyler, Texas. (AP Photo/Dr. Scott Lieberman, File) (ASSOCIATED PRESS/Dr. Scott Lieberman)
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Julia Ward Howe, composer and publisher of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic " in 1862, became a leader in the woman's  suffrage movementy in 1868. She also participated in moves to promote international peace. Julia Ward Howe is shown in this undated photo.  (AP Photo)
Two color guards and color bearers of the Japanese-American 442nd Combat team stand at attention while their citations are read somewhere in France during World War II on Nov. 12, 1944 .  They  are standing on the ground where many of their comrades fell.  (AP Photo/U.S. Army Signal Corps)
In this Jan. 7, 2010 photo, The entrance to the former F.W. Woolworth store that will become the International Civil Rights Center and Museum is shown in Greensboro, N.C. Four college freshmen walked into a Greensboro, N.C., dime store on Monday, Jan. 1 1960, bought a few items, then sat down at the "whites only" lunch counter, and sparked a wave of civil rights protest that changed America.  (AP Photo/Chuck Burton)
On this date in 1974, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor. (AP Photo/ file)
The late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, center, is greeted by supporters after arriving at the airport in Tehran Iran in this Feb. 1, 1979 photo. Monday Feb. 1, 1999 is the 20th anniversary of Khomeini's return from exile to lead the Islamic revolution in his country.  ( AP Photo )
FILE - In this Feb. 1, 1982 file photo, host David Letterman, right, and guest Bill Murray appear at the taping of the debut of "Late Night with David Letterman" in New York. Murray's 44th and final appearance Tuesday, May 19, 2015, will mark the end of late-night television's most unique and enduring host-guest relationships. After 33 years in late night and 22 years hosting CBS' "Late Show," Letterman will retire on May 20. (AP Photo/Nancy Kaye, File)
In this Saturday, Feb. 1, 2003 file photo, debris from the space shuttle Columbia streaks across the sky over Tyler, Texas. A new NASA report says that the seat restraints, suits and helmets of the doomed crew of the space shuttle Columbia didn't work well, leading to "lethal trauma" as the out-of-control ship broke apart, killing all seven astronauts. In a graphic 400-page report, NASA further studied the Feb. 1, 2003, shuttle tragedy to help them design their new shuttle replacement capsule more likely to survive an accident. (AP Photo/Dr. Scott Lieberman, File)

Today is Friday, Feb. 1, the 32nd day of 2019.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Feb. 1, 1960, four black college students began a sit-in protest at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, where they’d been refused service.

On this date:

In 1790, the U.S. Supreme Court convened for the first time in New York. (However, since only three of the six justices were present, the court recessed until the next day.)

In 1862, “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” a poem by Julia Ward Howe, was published in the Atlantic Monthly.

In 1942, during World War II, the Voice of America broadcast its first program to Europe, relaying it through the facilities of the British Broadcasting Corp. in London.

In 1943, during World War II, one of America’s most highly decorated military units, the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, made up almost exclusively of Japanese-Americans, was authorized.

In 1946, Norwegian statesman Trygve Lie (TRIHG’-vuh lee) was chosen to be the first secretary-general of the United Nations.

In 1959, men in Switzerland rejected giving women the right to vote by a more than 2-1 referendum margin. (Swiss women gained the right to vote in 1971.)

In 1968, during the Vietnam War, South Vietnam’s police chief (Nguyen Ngoc Loan) executed a Viet Cong officer with a pistol shot to the head in a scene captured by news photographers. Richard M. Nixon announced his bid for the Republican presidential nomination.

In 1979, Iranian religious leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (hoh-MAY’-nee) received a tumultuous welcome in Tehran as he ended nearly 15 years of exile.

In 1982, “Late Night with David Letterman” premiered on NBC.

In 1993, Gary Bettman took office as the National Hockey League’s first commissioner, succeeding the NHL’s final president, Gil Stein.

In 1994, Jeff Gillooly, Tonya Harding’s ex-husband, pleaded guilty in Portland, Ore., to racketeering for his part in the attack on figure skater Nancy Kerrigan in exchange for a 24-month sentence (he ended up serving six) and a $100,000 fine.

In 2003, the space shuttle Columbia broke up during re-entry, killing all seven of its crew members: commander Rick Husband; pilot William McCool; payload commander Michael Anderson; mission specialists Kalpana Chawla, David Brown and Laurel Clark; and payload specialist Ilan Ramon (ee-LAHN’ rah-MOHN’), the first Israeli in space.

Ten years ago: The Pittsburgh Steelers defeated the Arizona Cardinals 27-23 to win Super Bowl XLIII (43). Rafael Nadal held off Roger Federer to win the Australian Open, 7-5, 3-6, 7-6 (3), 3-6, 6-2. Olympic great Michael Phelps acknowledged “bad judgment” after a photo in a British newspaper showed him inhaling from a marijuana pipe. Australian firefighter Dave Tree was photographed giving water to an injured koala found in burned brushland in Victoria state; the rescued female koala, dubbed “Sam,” became an Internet sensation, but ended up being euthanized in Aug. 2009.

Five years ago: The United Nations’ secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, pressed the U.S. and Russia to help ensure that peace talks aimed at stemming Syria’s civil war would resume soon after a week of peace talks ended in Geneva with no concrete progress. Ray Guy became the first punter elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame; joining the long-time Oakland Raider were two first-time eligible players, linebacker Derrick Brooks and offensive tackle Walter Jones, as well as defensive end Michael Strahan, receiver Andre Reed, defensive back Aeneas Williams and defensive end Claude Humphrey. Peyton Manning won his fifth Associated Press NFL Most Valuable Player award in a landslide. Academy Award-winning actor Maximillian Schell, 83, died in Innsbruck, Austria.

One year ago: Republican State Rep. Don Shooter was expelled from the Arizona House because of a lengthy pattern of sexual misconduct, making him the first state lawmaker in the U.S. to be booted out since the (hash)MeToo movement emerged. Sheriff’s officials in Los Angeles said new witnesses had emerged in the 1981 drowning death of actress Natalie Wood, prompting investigators to name her former husband, Robert Wagner, a “person of interest” in what they considered a “suspicious death.” (Detectives later said the evidence hadn’t reached the threshold for a murder investigation and that they had no plans to file criminal charges.) A judge ordered a Wisconsin girl, Morgan Geyser, to be committed to a mental hospital for 40 years for stabbing a classmate when she was 12 years old to curry favor with the fictional horror character Slender Man.

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