Today in history: Oct. 30

circa 1796:  John Adams (1735 - 1826), the 2nd President of the United States of America (elected 1796).  (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
On Oct. 30, 1735 (New Style calendar), the second president of the United States, John Adams, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts. circa 1796: John Adams (1735 – 1826), the 2nd President of the United States of America (elected 1796). (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) (Getty Images/Hulton Archive)
Still creating, Martha Graham presented two new works in her company's recent New York engagement.  She "tore apart" one between its first and second performances.   Of her 139 choreographic works, many set modern dance on new paths.  This is "Appalachian Spring," one of Miss Graham's best known works.   Ethel Winter, seated, is the Bride, one of her own roles Miss Graham has transferred to other members of her troupe, an unusual gesture in the dance world.   (AP Photo)
On Oct. 30, 1944, the Martha Graham ballet “Appalachian Spring,” with music by Aaron Copland, premiered at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., with Graham in a leading role. Still creating, Martha Graham presented two new works in her company’s recent New York engagement. She “tore apart” one between its first and second performances. Of her 139 choreographic works, many set modern dance on new paths. This is “Appalachian Spring,” one of Miss Graham’s best known works. Ethel Winter, seated, is the Bride, one of her own roles Miss Graham has transferred to other members of her troupe, an unusual gesture in the dance world. (AP Photo) (AP/Anonymous)
General George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army, on Sept. 10, 1939, wearing the four stars  of a General. General  Marshall was promoted to Major General and was invested the same day with the rank and title of General by virtue of his detail as chief of staff of the army. (AP Photo)
In 1953, Gen. George C. Marshall was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. General George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army, on Sept. 10, 1939, wearing the four stars of a General. General Marshall was promoted to Major General and was invested the same day with the rank and title of General by virtue of his detail as chief of staff of the army. (AP Photo) (AP)
FILE - In this May 21, 1956 file photo, the stem of a hydrogen bomb, the first such nuclear device dropped from a U.S. aircraft, moves upward through a heavy cloud and comes through the top of the cloud, after the bomb was detonated over Namu Island in the Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands remains contaminated by radiation, part of a troubling nuclear testing legacy that continues to affect islands and people across the Pacific long after the U.S., Britain and France stopped their testing programs there. (AP Photo, File)
In 1961, the Soviet Union tested a hydrogen bomb, the “Tsar Bomba,” with a force estimated at about 50 megatons. The Soviet Party Congress unanimously approved a resolution ordering the removal of Josef Stalin’s body from Lenin’s tomb. FILE – In this May 21, 1956 file photo, the stem of a hydrogen bomb, the first such nuclear device dropped from a U.S. aircraft, moves upward through a heavy cloud and comes through the top of the cloud, after the bomb was detonated over Namu Island in the Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands.  (AP Photo, File) (AP)
FILE - This is a  Oct. 30, 1974 file photo of Muhammad Ali, right, as he  stands back as referee Zack Clayton calls the count over opponent George Foreman, red shorts, in Kinshasa, Zaire.  Ali won the fight in Africa by a knock out in the 8th round. It was 40 years ago that two men met just before dawn on Oct. 30, 1974, to earn $5 million in the Rumble in the Jungle. In one of boxing's most memorable moments, Muhammad Ali stopped the fearsome George Foreman to recapture the heavyweight title in the impoverished African nation of Zaire. (AP Photo, File)
In 1974, Muhammad Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round of a 15-round bout in Kinshasa, Zaire (zah-EER’), known as the “Rumble in the Jungle,” to regain his world heavyweight title. (AP Photo, File) (AP)
Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter, center, waves a copy of the New York Daily News carrying a headline "Ford to City: Drop Dead" during a reception at a Queens, N.Y., restaurant, Oct. 15, 1976. Standing behind the former Georgia governor are, from left: state Democratic nominee for U.S Senate, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Queens borough President Donald Manes and Gov. Hugh Carey, partially hidden. (AP Photo)
In 1975, the New York Daily News ran the headline “Ford to City: Drop Dead” a day after President Gerald R. Ford said he would veto any proposed federal bailout of New York City. Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter, center, waves a copy of the New York Daily News carrying a headline “Ford to City: Drop Dead” during a reception at a Queens, N.Y., restaurant, Oct. 15, 1976. Standing behind the former Georgia governor are, from left: state Democratic nominee for U.S Senate, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Queens borough President Donald Manes and Gov. Hugh Carey, partially hidden. (AP Photo)
Former Liberian President Charles Taylor looks down as he waits for the start of a hearing to deliver verdict in the court room of the Special Court for Sierra Leone in Leidschendam, near The Hague, Netherlands, Thursday April 26, 2012. Judges were expected to deliver landmark judgements in the trial against the former president who is charged with supporting notoriously brutal rebels in neighboring Sierra Leone. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong, Pool)
Ten years ago: A federal jury in Miami convicted the son of former Liberian President Charles Taylor in the first case brought under a 1994 U.S. law allowing prosecution for torture and atrocities committed overseas. (Charles McArthur Emmanuel was later sentenced to 97 years in prison.) Former Liberian President Charles Taylor looks down as he waits for the start of a hearing to deliver verdict in the court room of the Special Court for Sierra Leone in Leidschendam, near The Hague, Netherlands, Thursday April 26, 2012. Judges were expected to deliver landmark judgements in the trial against the former president who is charged with supporting notoriously brutal rebels in neighboring Sierra Leone. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong, Pool) (AP/Peter Dejong)
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circa 1796:  John Adams (1735 - 1826), the 2nd President of the United States of America (elected 1796).  (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
Still creating, Martha Graham presented two new works in her company's recent New York engagement.  She "tore apart" one between its first and second performances.   Of her 139 choreographic works, many set modern dance on new paths.  This is "Appalachian Spring," one of Miss Graham's best known works.   Ethel Winter, seated, is the Bride, one of her own roles Miss Graham has transferred to other members of her troupe, an unusual gesture in the dance world.   (AP Photo)
General George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army, on Sept. 10, 1939, wearing the four stars  of a General. General  Marshall was promoted to Major General and was invested the same day with the rank and title of General by virtue of his detail as chief of staff of the army. (AP Photo)
FILE - In this May 21, 1956 file photo, the stem of a hydrogen bomb, the first such nuclear device dropped from a U.S. aircraft, moves upward through a heavy cloud and comes through the top of the cloud, after the bomb was detonated over Namu Island in the Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands remains contaminated by radiation, part of a troubling nuclear testing legacy that continues to affect islands and people across the Pacific long after the U.S., Britain and France stopped their testing programs there. (AP Photo, File)
FILE - This is a  Oct. 30, 1974 file photo of Muhammad Ali, right, as he  stands back as referee Zack Clayton calls the count over opponent George Foreman, red shorts, in Kinshasa, Zaire.  Ali won the fight in Africa by a knock out in the 8th round. It was 40 years ago that two men met just before dawn on Oct. 30, 1974, to earn $5 million in the Rumble in the Jungle. In one of boxing's most memorable moments, Muhammad Ali stopped the fearsome George Foreman to recapture the heavyweight title in the impoverished African nation of Zaire. (AP Photo, File)
Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter, center, waves a copy of the New York Daily News carrying a headline "Ford to City: Drop Dead" during a reception at a Queens, N.Y., restaurant, Oct. 15, 1976. Standing behind the former Georgia governor are, from left: state Democratic nominee for U.S Senate, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Queens borough President Donald Manes and Gov. Hugh Carey, partially hidden. (AP Photo)
Former Liberian President Charles Taylor looks down as he waits for the start of a hearing to deliver verdict in the court room of the Special Court for Sierra Leone in Leidschendam, near The Hague, Netherlands, Thursday April 26, 2012. Judges were expected to deliver landmark judgements in the trial against the former president who is charged with supporting notoriously brutal rebels in neighboring Sierra Leone. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong, Pool)

Today is Tuesday, Oct. 30, the 303rd day of 2018. There are 62 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 30, 1735 (New Style calendar), the second president of the United States, John Adams, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts.

On this date:

In 1912, Vice President James S. Sherman, running for a second term of office with President William Howard Taft, died six days before Election Day. (Sherman was replaced with Nicholas Murray Butler, but Taft, the Republican candidate, ended up losing in an Electoral College landslide to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.)

In 1944, the Martha Graham ballet “Appalachian Spring,” with music by Aaron Copland, premiered at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., with Graham in a leading role.

In 1945, the U.S. government announced the end of shoe rationing, effective at midnight.

In 1953, Gen. George C. Marshall was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Dr. Albert Schweitzer received the Peace Prize for 1952.

In 1961, the Soviet Union tested a hydrogen bomb, the “Tsar Bomba,” with a force estimated at about 50 megatons. The Soviet Party Congress unanimously approved a resolution ordering the removal of Josef Stalin’s body from Lenin’s tomb.

In 1972, 45 people were killed when an Illinois Central Gulf commuter train was struck from behind by another train on Chicago’s South Side.

In 1974, Muhammad Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round of a 15-round bout in Kinshasa, Zaire (zah-EER’), known as the “Rumble in the Jungle,” to regain his world heavyweight title.

In 1975, the New York Daily News ran the headline “Ford to City: Drop Dead” a day after President Gerald R. Ford said he would veto any proposed federal bailout of New York City.

In 1979, President Carter announced his choice of federal appeals judge Shirley Hufstedler to head the newly created Department of Education.

In 1985, schoolteacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe witnessed the launch of the space shuttle Challenger, the same craft that would carry her and six other crew members to their deaths in Jan. 1986.

In 1995, by a razor-thin vote of 50.6 percent to 49.4 percent, Federalists prevailed over separatists in a Quebec secession referendum.

In 2002, Jam Master Jay (Jason Mizell), a rapper with the hip-hop group Run-DMC, was killed in a shooting in New York. He was 37.

Ten years ago: A federal jury in Miami convicted the son of former Liberian President Charles Taylor in the first case brought under a 1994 U.S. law allowing prosecution for torture and atrocities committed overseas. (Charles McArthur Emmanuel was later sentenced to 97 years in prison.)

Five years ago: President Barack Obama claimed “full responsibility” for fixing his administration’s troubled health insurance website, while on Capitol Hill, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius apologized to frustrated people trying to sign up, declaring that she was accountable for the failures but also defended the historic health care overhaul. The government said the deficit for the 2013 budget year totaled $680.3 billion, down from $1.09 trillion in 2012. The Boston Red Sox romped to their third World Series championship in 10 seasons, thumping the St. Louis Cardinals 6-1 in Game 6 at Fenway.

One year ago: Former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort and a former Manafort business associate, Rick Gates, were indicted on felony charges including conspiracy against the United States as Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election revealed its first targets. A former Trump campaign adviser, George Papadopoulos, admitted he lied to the FBI about his contacts with Russians. At his sentencing hearing, Army Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl apologized to the military personnel who were wounded searching for him after he walked off his post in Afghanistan in 2009. A federal judge in Washington barred the Trump administration from proceeding with plans to exclude transgender people from military service.

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