Today in History: Dec. 28

**FILE**This undated file image shows an etching of astronomer Galileo Galilei. Galileo is going from heretic to hero. The Vatican is rehabilitating its most famous victim of the Inquisition, just in time for the 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope and the U.N.-designated International Year of Astronomy next year.  (AP Photo, File)
In 1612, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei observed the planet Neptune, but mistook it for a star. (Neptune wasn’t officially discovered until 1846 by Johann Gottfried Galle.) (AP Photo, File) (AP)
John C. Calhoun, Vice President of the United States under President John Quincy Adams in 1824, and reelected in 1828 under President Andrew Jackson, is seen in this undated picture. (AP Photo)
In 1832, John C. Calhoun became the first vice president of the United States to resign, stepping down because of differences with President Andrew Jackson. (AP Photo) (ASSOCIATED PRESS)
Early cinema projector used by the Brothers Lumiere, Auguste and Louis, in 1895-6.   (Photo by Henry Guttmann/Getty Images)
In 1895, the Lumiere brothers, Auguste and Louis, held the first public showing of their movies in Paris. Pictured here is an early cinema projector used by the Brothers Lumiere in 1895-6. (Photo by Henry Guttmann/Getty Images) (Getty Images/Henry Guttmann)
488209695.jpg
On Dec. 28, 1945, Congress officially recognized the Pledge of Allegiance. (Getty Images/Richard Heathcote)
North Korean soldiers line up as they pay respect to the bronze statues of their late leaders Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il at Mansu Hill Grand Monument in Pyongyang, North Korea, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2018. Many North Koreans are marking the seventh anniversary of the death of leader Kim Jong Il with visits to the statues and vows of loyalty to his son, Kim Jong Un. (AP Photo/Dita Alangkara)
In 1972, Kim Il Sung, the premier of North Korea, was named the country’s president under a new constitution. (AP Photo/Dita Alangkara) (AP/Dita Alangkara)
Expelled Soviet author and Nobel Prize winner Alexander Solzhenitsyn grabs for the book “The Gulag Archipelago” in Langenbroich on Feb. 14, 1974 when journalists and onlookers asked him to sign his book, which he had in hand in this Western country for the first time. (AP Photo/Pro)
In 1973, the book “Gulag Archipelago,” Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s exposé of the Soviet prison system, was first published in Paris. Expelled Soviet author and Nobel Prize winner Alexander Solzhenitsyn grabs for the book “The Gulag Archipelago” in Langenbroich on Feb. 14, 1974 when journalists and onlookers asked him to sign his book, which he had in hand in this Western country for the first time. (AP Photo/Pro) (ASSOCIATED PRESS/Pro)
**FILE** Newborn Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first "test tube" baby born in the United States in Norfolk, Va., is seen in a Dec. 21, 1981 file photo. Carr, now 21 and a senior at Simmons College in Boston, met her birth doctor Fredrick Wirth in a reunion Tuesday, Sept. 23, 2003, in Boston. (AP Photo/File)
In 1981, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American “test-tube” baby, was born in Norfolk, Virginia. **FILE** Newborn Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first “test tube” baby born in the United States in Norfolk, Va., is seen in a Dec. 21, 1981 file photo. Carr, now 21 and a senior at Simmons College in Boston, met her birth doctor Fredrick Wirth in a reunion Tuesday, Sept. 23, 2003, in Boston. (AP Photo/File) (ASSOCIATED PRESS)
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**FILE**This undated file image shows an etching of astronomer Galileo Galilei. Galileo is going from heretic to hero. The Vatican is rehabilitating its most famous victim of the Inquisition, just in time for the 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope and the U.N.-designated International Year of Astronomy next year.  (AP Photo, File)
John C. Calhoun, Vice President of the United States under President John Quincy Adams in 1824, and reelected in 1828 under President Andrew Jackson, is seen in this undated picture. (AP Photo)
Early cinema projector used by the Brothers Lumiere, Auguste and Louis, in 1895-6.   (Photo by Henry Guttmann/Getty Images)
488209695.jpg
North Korean soldiers line up as they pay respect to the bronze statues of their late leaders Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il at Mansu Hill Grand Monument in Pyongyang, North Korea, Sunday, Dec. 16, 2018. Many North Koreans are marking the seventh anniversary of the death of leader Kim Jong Il with visits to the statues and vows of loyalty to his son, Kim Jong Un. (AP Photo/Dita Alangkara)
Expelled Soviet author and Nobel Prize winner Alexander Solzhenitsyn grabs for the book “The Gulag Archipelago” in Langenbroich on Feb. 14, 1974 when journalists and onlookers asked him to sign his book, which he had in hand in this Western country for the first time. (AP Photo/Pro)
**FILE** Newborn Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first "test tube" baby born in the United States in Norfolk, Va., is seen in a Dec. 21, 1981 file photo. Carr, now 21 and a senior at Simmons College in Boston, met her birth doctor Fredrick Wirth in a reunion Tuesday, Sept. 23, 2003, in Boston. (AP Photo/File)

Today is Friday, Dec. 28, the 362nd day of 2018.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Dec. 28, 1981, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first American “test-tube” baby, was born in Norfolk, Virginia.

On this date:

In 1612, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei observed the planet Neptune, but mistook it for a star. (Neptune wasn’t officially discovered until 1846 by Johann Gottfried Galle.)

In 1694, Queen Mary II of England died after more than five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III.

In 1832, John C. Calhoun became the first vice president of the United States to resign, stepping down because of differences with President Andrew Jackson.

In 1846, Iowa became the 29th state to be admitted to the Union.

In 1895, the Lumiere brothers, Auguste and Louis, held the first public showing of their movies in Paris.

In 1908, a major earthquake followed by a tsunami devastated the Italian city of Messina, killing at least 70,000 people.

In 1945, Congress officially recognized the Pledge of Allegiance.

In 1961, the Tennessee Williams play “Night of the Iguana” opened on Broadway. Former first lady Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, the second wife of President Woodrow Wilson, died in Washington at age 89.

In 1972, Kim Il Sung, the premier of North Korea, was named the country’s president under a new constitution.

In 1973, the book “Gulag Archipelago,” Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s expose (eks-poh-SAY’) of the Soviet prison system, was first published in Paris.

In 1987, the bodies of 14 relatives of Ronald Gene Simmons were found at his home near Dover, Arkansas, after Simmons shot and killed two other people in Russellville. (Simmons, who never explained his motives, was executed in 1990.)

In 1999, Clayton Moore, television’s “Lone Ranger, died in West Hills, California, at age 85.

Ten years ago: A bomb-loaded SUV exploded at a military checkpoint in Afghanistan, claiming the lives of 14 school children in a heartbreaking flash captured by a U.S. security camera. The Detroit Lions completed an awful 0-16 season _ the NFL’s worst ever _ with a 31-21 loss to the Green Bay Packers.

Five years ago: Iraqi troops detained a Sunni lawmaker, Ahmed al-Alwani, a prominent organizer of Sunni protests in Anbar, on terrorism charges for inciting violence against Shiites. Film, television and stage actor Joseph Ruskin, 89, died in Los Angeles.

One year ago: Twelve people died in a Bronx apartment building fire, the deadliest residential fire to hit New York City in at least a quarter century; officials said it was caused by a 3-year-old boy playing with stove burners. (A 13th victim died of his injuries days later.) Officials in Alabama certified Democrat Doug Jones as the winner of a special U.S. Senate election over Republican Roy Moore, who charged that the election was “fraudulent.” Rose Marie, who began her career in show business as a child in the 1920s and co-starred on “The Dick Van Dyke Show” in the 1960s, died at her Los Angeles-area home at the age of 94. Apple apologized for secretly slowing down older iPhones, a move it said was necessary to avoid unexpected shutdowns due to battery fatigue.

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© 2018 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.

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